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What is RFID? How does it work?

  • Administrator
  • Apr 23, 2022
  • RFID

What is RFID?

Radio Frequency Identification or RFID is a wireless system that uses the radio frequency to transfer data without any contact. The electromagnetic spectrum helps the system to use identify a product or object.

How do RFID works?

RFID works on two components, i.e. tags and readers.
Tags identify the object and its information with the help of radio waves. It then transfers all the information to the nearby readers. Tags can be of two types, Passive RFID tags and Active RFID tags. Active RFID tags have their power source which is usually a battery. Whereas, Passive RFID tags possess power from the reading antenna.
The reader is made by comprising an antenna and transceiver. The antenna of the reader emits radio waves and receives a signal from the RFID tags. It also translates the data. A reader can be portable or permanently fixed, depending upon your requirement.

Components of RFID system:


A tag is a substrate-attached information-programmed transponder. Tags are triggered when they pass across a radio frequency field formed by the reader's antenna.


A reader (also known as a transceiver or interrogator) uses the antennae to regulate radio communications. A reader can send signals to a tag, synchronise the tag with the reader, and examine the tag's contents in whole or in part. As a result, the reader's principal goal is to transfer information.


An antenna is made consisting of a coil with a winding and a related network. The primary function of an antenna is to broadcast electromagnetic waves created by the reader while simultaneously receiving radio frequency signals from the transponder.

Reader Interface Layer

The reader interface layer connects readers to hardware components such as computers.

Types of RFID systems

Low-frequency RFID systems

As their name says, their frequency span is low majorly from 30 to 500 kHz. 125 kHz is common. It has a limited transmission range from a few inches to less than 6 feet.


•  Access Control

•  Livestock Tracking

High-frequency RFID system

13.56 Mhz is the most common frequency seen in this system. Generally, the frequency varies from 3 to 30 MHz. The normal measurement range is a few inches to many feet.


•  Ticketing

•  Payment

•  Data Transfer Applications

UHF RFID systems

This can be read from a distance of 25 feet or more. The frequency range varies from 300 to 960 MHz, as observed 433MHz is common.


•  Retail Inventory Management

•  Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting

•  Wireless Device Configuration

Microwave RFID systems

It has a frequency range of 2.45 GHz and you can read it from a distance of more than 30 feet.

Uses of RFID

•  Pet And Livestock Tracking

•  Inventory Management

•  Asset Tracking And Equipment Tracking

•  Inventory Control

•  Cargo And Supply Chain Logistics

•  Vehicle Tracking

•  Customer Service And Loss Control

•  Improved Visibility And Distribution In The Supply Chain

•  Access Control In Security Situations

•  Shipping

•  Healthcare

•  Manufacturing

•  Retail Sales

•  Tap-And-Go Credit Card Payments

  • Last updated on Jan 24, 2023